The Verb Recognize a verb when you see one. Verbs are a necessary component of all sentences. Verbs have two important functions:
Meanings[ edit ] Predicates formed using a copula may express identity: I want only to be myself. The Morning Star is the Evening Star. They may also express membership of a class or a subset relationship: She was a nurse.
Similarly they may express some property, relation or position, permanent or temporary: The trees are green. The hen is next to the cockerel. The children are confused.
Other special uses of copular verbs are described in some of the following sections. For examples, see the sections on the Romance languagesSlavic languages and Irish. Forms[ edit ] In many languages the principal copula is a verbsuch as English to be, German sein, Mixtec kuu,  Touareg emous,  etc.
It may inflect for grammatical categories such as tenseaspect and moodlike other verbs in the language. As a very commonly used verb, it is likely that the copula has irregular inflected forms; in English, the verb be has a number of highly irregular suppletive forms and has more different inflected forms than any other English verb am, is, are, was, were, etc.
Other copulas show more resemblances to pronouns. That is the case for Classical Chinese and Guaranifor instance. In highly synthetic languagescopulas are often suffixesattached to a noun, but they may still behave otherwise like ordinary verbs: In some other languages, such as Beja and Ketthe copula takes the form of suffixes that attach to a noun but are distinct from the person agreement markers used on predicative verbs.
Additional uses of copular verbs[ edit ] A copular verb may also have other uses supplementary to or distinct from its uses as a copula. As auxiliary verbs[ edit ] The English copular verb be can be used as an auxiliary verbexpressing passive voice together with the past participle or expressing progressive aspect together with the present participle: The man was killed.
French for "I have arrived", literally "I am arrived. The auxiliary functions of these verbs derive from their copular function, and can be interpreted as a special case of the copular function the verbal form that follows it being considered adjectival.
Another auxiliary-type usage of the copula in English is together with the to-infinitive to denote an obligatory action or expected occurrence: It can be put also into past tense: Note that by certain criteria, the English copula be may always be considered an auxiliary verb; see Diagnostics for identifying auxiliary verbs in English.
Existential usage[ edit ] The English to be, and its equivalents in certain other languages, also have a non-copular use as an existential verb, meaning "to exist".
This use is illustrated in the following sentences: I want only to be, and that is enough; I think therefore I am ; To be or not to bethat is the question.
In these cases, the verb itself expresses a predicate that of existencerather than linking to a predicative expression as it does when used as a copula.
In ontology it is sometimes suggested that the "is" of existence is reducible to the "is" of property attribution or class membership; to be, Aristotle held, is to be something. However, Abelard in his Dialectica made a reductio ad absurdum argument against the idea that the copula can express existence.
However, other languages prefer a different verb for existential use, as in the Spanish version Pienso, luego existo where the verb existir "to exist" is used rather than the copula ser or estar "to be". Another type of existential usage is in clauses of the there is For details, see existential clause.
Relying on a unified theory of copular sentences, it has been proposed that the English there-sentences are subtypes of inverse copular constructions. Zero copula In some languages, copula omission occurs within a particular grammatical context. For example, speakers of RussianIndonesianTurkishHungarianArabicHebrewand Quechuan languages consistently drop the copula in present tense: The usage is known generically as the zero copula.
Note that in other tenses sometimes in forms other than third person singularthe copula usually reappears. Some languages drop the copula in poetic or aphorismic contexts. Examples in English include The more, the better. Out of many, one.Definition.
A compound sentence is a sentence that has at least two independent clauses joined by a comma, semicolon or conjunction. An independent clause is a clause that has a subject and verb.
The Mastering the Mechanics webinar series also describes required sentence elements and varying sentence types. Please see these archived webinars for more information.
Key: Yellow, bold = subject; green underline = verb, blue, italics = object, pink, regular font = prepositional phrase Independent clause: An independent clause can stand alone as a sentence. Sentence worksheets to help English learners generate correct sentences while learning important sentence structure.
What Is a Complex Sentence? A complex sentence is one in which there is an independent clause and a dependent clause. These are used for many different reasons such as to show relationships between the two clauses such as for cause and effect; “The bull ran rapidly across the field, it .
The Verb Recognize a verb when you see one. Verbs are a necessary component of all schwenkreis.com have two important functions: Some verbs put stalled subjects into motion while other verbs help to clarify the subjects in meaningful ways.
Grammar: Sentences. In writing, words are grouped together into phrases, sentences, clauses and paragraphs. Linking these building blocks together in the right way makes your writing easy to understand and interesting to read.