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Telex starts as a way to distribute military messages, but soon becomes a world-wide network of both official and commercial text messaging that will persist in some countries into the s.
Telex uses teleprinters, which date back to the s for use in telegraphy. But instead of using pricey dedicated telegraph lines, the telex system connects those teleprinters to each other over voice telephone lines, routed by modified telephone switches.
Wireless versions of Telex soon connect remote regions of the developing world. His Mundaneum now combines enhanced card catalogs with sixteen million entries, photos, documents, microfilm, and more. He is working on integrating telegraphy and multiple media, from sound recordings to television.
In the s British writer H. These approaches to organizing information differ. The Memex is the brainchild of top U. The basic mechanism he suggests is a microfilm automatic selector similar to those built by optics pioneer Emmanuel Goldberg in the early s.
Modems will be adapted to computers in for the upcoming SAGE system, and commercialized by Bell Telephone in By letting computers use normal voice telephone lines, they offer greater coverage and lower costs than dedicated telegraph or leased data lines. Digital Phone Lines s Channel Computer communication for bringing T1 lines into a business Phone companies develop digital transmission for internal uses — specifically to put more calls on each of the main lines connecting their own switching centers.
Bythis produces the T1 standard still used in North America. By the s, phone companies will be leasing digital lines to commercial customers. There are 23 computer centers across North America, communicating with radar stations, counter-attack aircraft, and each other — all in real-time, as potentially threatening events are happening.
Besides networking SAGE also helps pioneer interactive computing and multi-user systems. Hundreds of people use the system simultaneously, interacting through groundbreaking graphical consoles. Each console has its own large screen, pointing device a light guna telephone, and an ashtray.
Ever on the alert for a Soviet attack, SAGE operators would describe the experience as endless hours of boredom…broken by seconds of sheer terror. But the system will operate until the s. Timesharing — the first online communities User on the Dartmouth Time-sharing system By the early s many people can share a single computer, using terminals often repurposed teleprinters to log in over phone lines.
These timesharing computers are like central hubs with spokes radiating to individual users. As a result, timesharing pioneers many features of later networks, from file sharing to e-mail and chat.
Typical s users are a mix of business people, bank employees, students and researchers, and military personnel. Using telephone lines, SABRE links 2, terminals in 65 cities to a pair of IBM computers, delivering data on any flight in less than three seconds.
It remains the basis of modern travel sites including Travelocity.
Carterfone Carterfone with commemorative plaque Used by Texas oilmen, the Carterfone acoustically connects mobile radios to the telephone network. Telephone companies sue in Users in some countries will wait until the s for similar freedoms. Modems create a kind of de facto net neutrality; telephone companies have no control over what is sent over their lines with a modem.
Cramming More Users onto the Same Line ADS multiplexers advertisement Since telegraph days, people have been refining techniques for squeezing more connections onto a single wire. Early multiplexers for computers let up to 15 terminals share the same line, by assigning each of them a particular frequency Frequency Division Multiplexing.
Ina new generation of time-division multiplexers gives each user a small slice of time in turn, radically expanding the number of computer terminals that can share the same line — from 15 to This dramatically lowers costs for businesses, and the multiplexer market becomes highly competitive.
Advances in acoustic couplers — the devices that let you connect your terminal to a regular telephone handset — also help more and more people go online.
But others come online within weeks or months. During the s researchers in various countries have been working on bringing automation — and online transactions — to customers in the form of an Automated Teller Machine ATM.
The paper used by some of the first ATMs is slightly radioactive, to be machine readable.Data communications refers to the transmission of this digital data between two or more computers and a computer network or data network is a telecommunications network that allows computers to exchange data.
The physical connection between networked computing devices is established using either. With side-by-side screens, the imaginary Memex desk is meant to let a user compare and create links between microfilm documents, somewhat .
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