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Other[ edit ] Interposed abdominal compressions may be beneficial in the hospital environment. Active compression-decompression methods using mechanical decompression of the chest have not been shown to improve outcome in cardiac arrest.
Blood circulation and oxygenation are required to transport oxygen to the tissues. The physiology of CPR involves generating a pressure gradient between the arterial and venous vascular beds; CPR achieves this via multiple mechanisms  The brain may sustain damage after blood flow has been stopped for about four minutes and irreversible damage after about seven minutes.
Therefore, in general CPR is effective only if performed within seven minutes of the stoppage of blood flow.
Low body temperatures, as sometimes seen in near-drownings, prolong the time the brain survives. Following cardiac arrest, effective CPR enables enough oxygen to reach the brain to delay brain stem deathand allows the heart to remain responsive to defibrillation attempts.
Additional devices[ edit ] While several adjunctive devices are available, none other than defibrillationas ofhave consistently been found to be better than standard CPR for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
S These devices can be split into three broad groups: Timing devices[ edit ] Timing devices can feature a metronome an item carried by many ambulance crews in order to assist the rescuer in achieving the correct rate. Some units can also give timing reminders for performing compressions, ventilating and changing operators.
These items can be devices to be placed on top of the chest, with the rescuer's hands going over the device, and a display or audio feedback giving information on depth, force or rate,  or in a wearable format such as a glove.
Both use straps around the chest, LUCAS-2 uses a gas driven piston and motor driven constricting band. There are several advantages to automated devices: Several studies have shown little or no improvement in survival rates    but acknowledge the need for more study. An evaluation of 61 available apps has revealed that a large number do not follow international guidelines for basic life support and many apps are not designed in a user-friendly way.
The report's authors suggested that better training is needed to improve the willingness to respond to cardiac arrest.
Offer reassurance and education about CPR. Provide clearer information about legal implications for specific regions. Focus on reducing the stigma and fears around providing bystander CPR.
Younger people are far more likely to have CPR attempted on them before the arrival of emergency medical services. Lay persons are most likely to give CPR to younger people in cardiac arrest in a public place when it has a medical cause; those in arrest from trauma, exsanguination or intoxication are less likely to receive CPR.
Research using cardioplegic blood infusion resulted in a New research is currently needed to determine what role CPR, electroshock, and new advanced gradual resuscitation techniques will have with this new knowledge. Hypothermia seems to protect by slowing down metabolic and physiologic processes, greatly decreasing the tissues' need for oxygen.
These chest compressions create significant local blunt traumarisking bruising or fracture of the sternum or ribs. For this reason, training is always done with a manikinsuch as the well-known Resusci Anne model. The portrayal of CPR technique on television and film often is purposely incorrect.
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Actors simulating the performance of CPR may bend their elbows while appearing to compress, to prevent force from reaching the chest of the actor portraying the victim. Rochester General Hospital has denied any connection with the technique. In cases of myocardial infarction heart attackduring which the person may well remain conscious but which is not by itself a form of arrest, attempting "cough CPR" will increase the workload on the heart and will likely prove harmful.
The AHA does recognize a limited legitimate use of the coughing technique: In such cases the patient's ECG is monitored continuously, and a physician is present. In Aprilit was claimed that nine-year-old Tristin Saghin saved his sister's life by administering CPR on her after she fell into a swimming pool, using only the knowledge of CPR that he had gleaned from a motion picture, Black Hawk Down.
Most bystanders are worried that they might do something wrong. History of cardiopulmonary resuscitation In the 19th century, Doctor H. Silvester described a method The Silvester Method of artificial ventilation in which the patient is laid on their back, and their arms are raised above their head to aid inhalation and then pressed against their chest to aid exhalation.
This type of artificial ventilation is occasionally seen in films made in the early 20th century. A second technique, called the Holger Nielsen technique, described in the first edition of the Boy Scout Handbook in the United States inwas a form of artificial ventilation where the person was laid face down, with their head to the side, resting on the palms of both hands.
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This may be due to medical staff being ultimately unable to address the cause of the cardiac arrest, to other co-morbidities, or to the patient being gravely ill in more than one way. Ultimately, only 5–10% of patients in cardiac arrest will survive after an attempted resuscitation.